Department of Economics
College of William and Mary
Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
Phone: (757) 221-2373
B.A., Colby College, Waterville, Maine, 1965 (Economics)
M.A., University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 1966 (Economics)
Ph.D., University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 1970 (Economics)
Professor of Economics, College of William and Mary, 1989-
Chair of the Department of Economics, College of William and Mary 1997- 2003
Associate Professor of Economics, College of William and Mary, 1975-1989.
Assistant Professor of Economics,
Lecturer in Econometrics, University of Leeds, Leeds, England, 1968-1970.
Stanford Research Institute
Virginia Marine Resources Commission
U.S. General Accounting Office
U.S. Department of Transportation
U.S. Department of Energy
National Center for State Courts
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The Orkand Corporation
Decision Analysis Corporation of
West Publishing Group
Research and Teaching Fields
Law and Economics
Time Series Analysis
National Defense Education Act Fellow, University of Connecticut, 1965-1968.
Bredin Fellow, College of William and Mary, 1982.
Member, Methodology Review Panel, Prison Population Forecast,
Notable Individuals, Micro Computer Industry, 1983.
Speaker, Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Committe of Priorities for a Public Health Research Agenda to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-related Violence, National Academies of Science, Washington, DC, April 23, 2013
“Clustering and Standard Error Bias in Fixed Effects Panel Data Regressions, (with T.B. Marvell) Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-018-9383-z
“The Impact of Right-to-Carry Laws: Critique of the 2014 version of Aneja, Donohue, and Zhang,” (with T.B. Marvell) Econ Journal Watch, February 2018.
“Firearms and the Decline in Violence in Europe 1201-2010,” Review of European Studies, 9(2) 2017
"The Impact of Right-to-Carry Laws on Crime: An Exercise in
Replication," (with T.B. Marvell, P.R. Zimmerman and Fisal Alemante)
Review of Economics and Finance, 4(1) 2014, 33-43.
"Did John Lott Provide Bad Data to the NRC? A Note on Aneja, Donohue, and Zhang," (with J.R. Lott and T.B. Marvell) Econ Journal Watch, January 2013.
“On the Choice of Control Variables in the Crime Equation,” (with T.B. Marvell) Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 72(5) 2010, 696-715
"The Debate on Shall-Issue Laws, Continued," (with T.B. Marvell) Econ Journal Watch, 6(2) March 2009, 203-217.
"The Debate on Shall-Issue Laws," (with T.B. Marvell) Econ
“Can and Should Criminology Research Influence Policy? Suggestions for
Time-Series Cross-Section Studies” (with T.B. Marvell) Criminology and
"Guns and Crime," (with T.B. Marvell), Southern Economic Journal, 71(4), April, 2005, 720-736.
"When Prisoners Get Out," (with Kovandzic, Marvell and Vieraitis), Criminal Justice Policy Review, 15, 2004, 212-228.
"The Impact of Right-to-Carry Concealed Firearms Laws on Mass Public Shootings," (with Tomislav Kovandzic and Grant Duwe), Homicide Studies, 6, 2002, 271-296.
"Testing for the Effects of Concealed Weapons Laws: Specification Errors and Robustness," Journal of Law and Economics, 44 (PT.2), 2001, 799-813.
"The Lethal Effects of Three-Strikes Laws," (with T.B. Marvell), Journal of Legal Studies, 30, 2001, 89-106.
"Female and Male Homicide Victimization Rates: Comparing Trends and Regressors," (with T. B. Marvell), Criminology, 37, 1999, 879-902.
“The Impact of Out-of-State Prison Population on State Homicide Rates: Displacement and Free-Rider Effects,” (with T.B. Marvell), Criminology, 30, 1998, 513-535.
"The Impact of Prison Growth on Homicide," (with T.B. Marvell) Homicide Studies, 1, 1997, 215-233.
"Age Structure, Trends, and Prison Populations," (with T.B. Marvell) Journal of Criminal Justice, 25, 1997, 114-124.
"Police Levels, Crime Rates, and Specification Problems," (with T.B. Marvell) Criminology, 24, 1996, 606-646.
"A Regional Linear Logit Fuel Demand Model for Electric Utilities," Energy Economics, 18, 1996, 295-314.
"The Uncertain Timing of Innovations in Time Series:
"Determinant Sentencing and Abolishing Parole: the Long Term Impacts on Prisons and Crime," (with T.B. Marvell), Criminology, 34, 1996.
"The Impact of Enhanced Prison Terms for Felonies Committed with Guns" (with T.B. Marvell) Criminology, Vol. 33, 1995.
"Prison Population Growth and Crime Reduction." (with T.B. Marvell) Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 1994, 109-140.
"Alternative Bidding Systems for Leasing Offshore Oil: Experimental Evidence." Economica, 61, 1994, 345-353.
"Forecasting the Marginal Costs of a Multiple Output Production Technology." (with G. Lady), Journal of Forecasting, 12, 1993, 421-436.
"Volunteer Attorneys as Appellate Judges." (with T.B. Marvell) The Justice System Journal, 16, 1992, 49-64.
"Age Structure and Crime Rates: Conflicting Evidence." (with T.B. Marvell) Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 7, 1991, 237-273.
"OCS Leasing Policy and Lease Prices." (with W.J. Kruvant) Land Economics, 66, February 1990, 30-39.
"The Effectiveness of Measures to Increase Appellate Court Efficiency
and Decision Output." (with T.B. Marvell)
"Joint Bidding, Entry, and OCS Lease Prices" (with W.J. Kruvant) Rand Journal of Economics, 19, Summer 1988, 276-284.
"Appellate and Trial Caseload Growth: A Pooled Time Series Cross Section Approach" (with T.B. Marvell) Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 1987.
"The Impact of Economic and Judgeship Changes on Federal District Court Filings" (with T.B. Marvell) Judicature, Vol. 69, No. 3, Oct./Nov. 1985, 156.
"The GAO Natural Gas Supply Model" (with P.A. Valentine and W.J. Kruvant) Energy Economics, January 1985, 49-57.
"Strategy, Structure and Performance of Major Energy Producers: Evidence from Line of Business Data" (with A.T. Andersen and J.A. Rasmussen) Review of Industrial Organization, Winter, 1984: 290-307.
"Quality, Price, Advertising and Published Quality Ratings" (with
R.A. Archibald and
"Sources of Productivity Decline in
"Seasonal Variation in Residential Electricity Demand: Evidence from Survey Data," (with R.A. Archibald and D.H. Finifter), Applied Economics, Vol. 14, No. 2, April 1982, 167-181.
"The Subsidy Effects of the Crude Oil Entitlements Program," Atlantic Economic Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, July, 1980, 103.
"Industrial Generation of Electricity in 1985: A Regional Forecast," Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1980, 33-43.
"The Measurement of Capital Services by Electrical Energy,"
"Air Quality, Environment and Metropolitan Community Structure" (With Craig Humphrey), Review of Regional Studies, Winter 1973.
"Productivity Change in Zambian Mining" (With Norman Kessel), South African Journal of Economics, March 1972.
Heller, McDonald and Murder: Testing the More Guns=More Murder Thesis," (with Don Kates), Fordham Urban Law Review, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2012.
"Brief of Academics as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondent." Supreme Court of the United States, No. 07-290, District of Columbia vs. Dick Anthony Heller, February, 2008.
"Simulation Modeling and Policy Analysis," Criminology & Public Policy, 1, 2002, 393-398.
"Game Theory and Football" (with David Ribar), Access: The Journal of Microcomputer Applications, Vol. 4, No. 3, Nov./Dec. 1985, 5-15.
"Reasons for State Appellate Caseload Growth" (with T. Marvell) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Department of Justice, 1985.
"State Appellate Caseload Growth: Documentary Appendix." (with Marvell, et. al.)
"Model Documentation for the Mini-Macroeconomic Model: MINMAC" Washington, D.C., Energy Information Administration, 1984.
"Neighborhood Segregation." (with E.S. Dethlefsen.) Byte, The Small Systems Journal, Vol. 7, No. 7, July 1982, 178-206.
"Technological Progress and Energy Use," Proceedings of the Third Annual University of Missouri, Missouri Energy Council Conference on Energy, October, 1976.
"Technological Change in the Soviet Chemical Industry," Technical Note SSC-TN-2625-8 Stanford Research Institute, 1975 (With F.W. Rushing).
"Feasibility Study of Inter-City Transit Via Southern Railway R/W, Norfolk and Virginia Beach Corridor" (With R.H. Bigelow, S.H. Baker and M.A. Garrett), U.S. Department of Transportation, 1974.
"Productivity Growth in U.S. Manufacturing," in 1973 Proceedings of the Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association.